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Pattern of human fascioliasis in the province of Giulan, Iran (Since 2008-2014)

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Ali Fattahi Bafghi, Yasman Alijany and Mostafa Mirza Nejad

Introduction Fascioliasis is caused by two species of parasitic trematode that mainly affect the liver. It belongs to the group of food borne trematode infections and is a Zoonose, meaning an animal infection that may be transmitted to humans. Human cases occurred now increasingly reported from Europe, the Americas and Oceania (where only Fasciola hepatica is transmitted) and from Africa and Asia (where the two species overlap). WHO estimates that at least 2.4 million people are infected in more than 70 countries worldwide, in Iran estimates that at least 6 million people are infected in provinces of Giulan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Kermanshah, Ardabil, Khuzestan and Lorestan and Giulan province, especially one of the most important of endemic centers in the World. Most cases in the province of Giulan reported from Anzali city.This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Pattern of Human Fascioliasis the Province of Giulan, Iran (Since 2008-2014). Materials and Methods: This study was an analytic-descriptive and manner descriptive of retrospective study. All episodes (Imported Fascioliasis) of disease from 2008 to 2014 which were documented in Giulan Central Health Service were carefully studied and reported. Results: A total of 375 confirmed reported Fascioliasis patients from 2008 to 2014 were studied, Of the 245 patients (65.2%) in urban areas and 130 (34.8%) were living in rural areas, the difference was significant (P <0.05). Anzali City with 169 cases (45.1%), Rasht, with 77 cases (20.5%) and Lahijan with 70 cases (18.7%) were the most common parasitic infections and other cities Fasciola prevalence was low and the difference was significant (P <0.05). Most patients of the female sex, with 246 cases (56.6%) and the lowest for males and 129 (34.2%) and the difference was significant (P <0.05). According to the age of the highest rates of infection in the age group 59-40 years old Fascioliasis with 141 cases (37.6%), the lowest rate in Fasciola infection related to age group was 19.0 years, with 30 cases (8%) and no significant difference (P> 0.05). Also Fascioliasis in jobs, education and months showed no significant difference (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Although Fascioliasis has been designed on elimination program in Iran, but in the province of Giulan has reported imported Fascioliasis yet and its importance in causing intermittent pain, jaundice and anemia. Pancreatitis, gallstones and bacterial super-infections and other infectious disorders is not negligible.

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