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Gross morphological changes in chick embryos after exposure to Neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid

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Dr Muktyaz Hussein, Dr. Vishram Singh, Dr M.A.Hassan, Dr. Prerna Gupta, Dr Rakesh Pathak and Dr A.K.Singh

Introduction: Imidacloprid is one of the major representatives of the new generation of neonicotinoid insecticides derived from nicotine isolated from the tobacco plant. Imidacloprid is a widely applied pesticide due to their higher affinity for insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, it acts on nervous system. Worldwide, it is considered to be one of the insecticides used in the largest volume. Pesticide substances are biologically active and must be tested to ensure that their use will not give rise to any unacceptable risks to non-target organisms (i.e. humans, animals, plants and environment).

Methods: The current study was carried out on 400 fertile eggs of white leghorn chicken obtained from government poultry farm after taking permission from animal ethical committee. Chicken eggs exposed to Imidacloprid with doses of 2.5µg, 5µg, 10µg and 20µg in a volume of 2.5µl, 5µl, 10µl and 20µl respectively and control same as test group. The embryos were terminated on 21st day, eggs shell broken with a scalpel and embryos removed. Gross morphological changes observed and recorded. 

Results: The results show that experimental group had comparatively more cases of morphological changes growth retardation resulting into failure of retraction of yolk sac, limbs deformities, beak deformities, head enlargement and ectopia viscerale as compared to controls.

Conclusion: Imidacloprid exposure increases the risks of morphological changes with increasing embryonic age. Comparatively higher doses proved more toxic and also caused many morphological changes and developmental defects.

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